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Islamic terms and their translations

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Hani

Islamic terms and their translations
« on: November 17, 2015, 11:14:50 PM »
Salam,


When translating, I noticed some terms are commonly used but their translation is unknown to us, so I will make this thread to list whatever terms we come across and how to correctly translate them to english. There may not be clear translation at times but the most accurate meaning will suffice.


Furthermore, some terms may need an entire paragraph to properly explain, so I believe we should make the definitions very brief in order to make it practical.


All can participate, I start Insha-Allah,


Imaam إمام: leader, one who is followed.


Imaamah إمامة: leadership.


Wasee وصي: executioner of will, legatee.


Zindeeq زنديق: manichaean, heretic, one who claims to be Muslim but holds dangerous beliefs directly at odds with Islam.


Faasiq فاسق: impious, wicked sinner.


Khaleefah خليفة: successor, deputy.


Thiqah ثقة: trustworthy, reliable.


Sadooq صدوق: truthful, honest.


Jabriyyah جبرية: People of compulsion or fatalism, derogatory term used to describe the belief in predestination and that everything is decided by fate.

Hatmiyyah حتمية: Determinism and determenists. As opposed to Jabriyyah, this is a non-religious belief in which the human and his actions are controlled by a chain of physical or materialistic causes instead of fate and God.

Qadariyyah قدرية: Libertarians, derogatory term used to describe those who don't believe in predestination and emphasize on freedom of will and that humans create their own actions.


Al-`Aamah العامة: the mainstream Muslims or commoners. In Shia literature refers to Sunnies.


Mu`tazilah معتزلة: Isolationists.


Raafidah رافضة: Rejectionists or Rejecters.


Ghaybah غيبة: concealment, occultation.


Mahdee مهدي: guided one.


Saahib-ul-Amr صاحب الامر: master/lord of (the) authority.


Saahib-ul-Zamaan صاحب الزمان: master/lord of the age.


Kharaj al-Tawqee` خرج التوقيع: the rescript emerged or arrived.


Shee`ah شيعة: followers of or partisans of someone.


Ahl-ul-Bayt أهل البيت: household.


Ahl أهل: someone's family, wife or people.


Sufaraa' سفراء: Emissaries or envoys.


Tashbeeh/Tajseem تجسيم/تشبيه: anthropomorphism. (Difference is: A Mujassim believes god is a body unlike any creature, whereas a Mushabbih believes he's a body like that of his creatures)


Ju`iltu Fidaak جعلت فداك: may I be made your ransom OR may I be sacrificed for you.


Shaadh شاذ: abnormal, irregular, anomalous.


Munkar منكر: denounced, rejected.


Mudtarib مضطرب: shaky, disordered.


Mutawaatir متواتر: mass transmitted OR continuously recurrent reports.


Tawaatur تواتر: high recurrence of reports.


Ijtihaad إجتهاد: independent reasoning.


Ghulaat غلات: extremists.


Ma`soom معصوم: protected, guarded.


Yatawallaa/Yuwaalee يتولى/يوالي: befriends, takes as close friend/supporter/ally/beloved.


Ameer أمير: commander or chief.


Haakim حاكم: ruler or judge.


Al-Nass النص: divine textual appointment or declaration or announcement. (refers to `Ali's explicit designation)


Al-Harj wal-Marj الهرج و المرج: turmoil and tumult.


Fitnah فتنة: trial, strife, temptation, ordeal.


Taqiyyah تقية: dissimulation. (To be wary of danger and hide one's beliefs out of precaution to guard the self)


Mukallaf مكلف: religiously accountable.


Awlaa أولى: nearer than, more worthy of, has greater claim to.


Wakeel وكيل: fiscal agent. (agents that collect money on behalf of later Imams)


Mawlaa مولى: (-A-) slave/servant/client & (-B-) master of a slave/patron & (-C-) ally/supporter & (-D-) beloved friend/close one (e.g Musa bin Yaqtin was a Persian client "mawlaa" for banu Asad, thus the tribe of Asad are patrons of Musa bin Yaqtin. A patron is the former owner and (frequently) protector of a freed slave and in turn the freed-slave is a client who is loyal to the former masters) NOTE: First two meanings A & B are the case almost 19/20 times and they are the apparent meaning of the word Mawla in most speech of Arabs.


Zuhoor ظهور: coming of, appearance, arrival, parousia. (refers to the coming of their awaited savior)


Qaa'im قائم: one who arises (e.g Qiyaam: The rising. al-Qa'im bil-Sayf: The riser with the sword. Qa'im Aal-Muhammad: The redresser of the rights of the house of Muhammad)


Saahibul-Sayf صاحب السيف: lord of the sword. (refers to their apocalyptic savior)


Baab باب: gates (men who claimed to be a link between the common Shia and their leader)


Saahib صاحب: lord and master. (it's in context of shia narrations Saahib-ul-Amr: Lord of the cause, also if an Imam says: "My son is your Saahib" it refers to leadership)


Waaqifah واقفة: cessationists.


Zaydiyyah زيدية: partisans of Zayd.


Al-Ridaa min Aal-Muhammad الرضا من آل محمد: the one agreed upon from the house of Muhammad. (title spread by pro-`Alid revolutionaries to select a Hashemite pleasing to the people and God then overthrow the tyrannical governments. `Abbasid Da`wah (call) was centered around this.)


Al-Naahiyah al-Muqaddasah الناحية المقدسة: the holy seat of the Imam. (e.g Kharaja Tawqee` min al-Naahiyah Muqaddasah: A rescript emerged from the holy seat. Often refers to letters/documents coming from hidden Imam)


Al-Usool al-Arba`mee'ah اصول الاربعمائة: four hundred principles or foundations. (e.g `Usfiri's asl: The principle (book) of al-`Usfuri)


Hayrah حيرة: (period of) preplexity.


`Ilm al-Kalaam علم الكلام: science of words, refers to rational/speculative theology.


To be continued...
« Last Edit: April 26, 2017, 11:42:50 PM by Hani »
عَلامَةُ أَهْلِ الْبِدَعِ الْوَقِيعَةُ فِي أَهْلِ الأَثَرِ. وَعَلامَةُ الْجَهْمِيَّةِ أَنْ يُسَمُّوا أَهْلَ السُّنَّةِ مُشَبِّهَةً. وَعَلامَةُ الْقَدَرِيَّةِ أَنْ يُسَمُّوا أَهْلَ السُّنَّةِ مُجَبِّرَةً. وَعَلامَةُ الزَّنَادِقَةِ أَنْ يُسَمُّوا أَهْلَ الأَثَرِ حَشْوِيَّةً

Religion = simple & clear

MuslimK

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Re: Islamic terms and their translations
« Reply #1 on: November 18, 2015, 02:02:11 AM »
BarakAllah fik!

Useful thread.
در خلافت میل نیست ای بی‌خبر
میل کی آید ز بوبکر و عمر
میل اگر بودی در آن دو مقتدا
هر دو کردندی پسر را پیشوا

عطار نِیشابوری

Hani

Re: Islamic terms and their translations
« Reply #2 on: November 18, 2015, 04:17:14 AM »
u guys can contribute some terms. I may also begin to categorize each group of terms seperately.
عَلامَةُ أَهْلِ الْبِدَعِ الْوَقِيعَةُ فِي أَهْلِ الأَثَرِ. وَعَلامَةُ الْجَهْمِيَّةِ أَنْ يُسَمُّوا أَهْلَ السُّنَّةِ مُشَبِّهَةً. وَعَلامَةُ الْقَدَرِيَّةِ أَنْ يُسَمُّوا أَهْلَ السُّنَّةِ مُجَبِّرَةً. وَعَلامَةُ الزَّنَادِقَةِ أَنْ يُسَمُّوا أَهْلَ الأَثَرِ حَشْوِيَّةً

Religion = simple & clear

Husayn

Re: Islamic terms and their translations
« Reply #3 on: November 18, 2015, 05:21:26 AM »
Ma'sum - معصوم - Protected

Incorrectly (I believe) translated as "Infallible".
إن يتبعون إلا الظن وما تهوى الأنفس

Khaled

Re: Islamic terms and their translations
« Reply #4 on: November 18, 2015, 08:56:50 PM »
Some of these are the linguistic meanings of these terms, some of them have special technical "shar3ee" meanings.

Sahih=Hadeeth that has 1) a connected chain, 2) of upright 3) and precise narrators 4) that doesn't containing "shuthooth" (irregularities) or 5) hidden defects.
Hasan=Hadeeth that meets those conditions except one of the narrators may not be very precise.
Da'eef=Hadeeth that doesn't meet one or more of those conditions.

Waajib=An act which a person is rewarded for doing intentionally and may be punished for leaving.
Mustahabb=An act which a person is rewarded for doing intentionally and is not punished for leaving.
Haraam=An act which a person may be punished for doing and is rewarded for leaving intentionally.
Makroof=An act which a person is not punished for doing and is rewarded for leaving intentionally.
Mubah=An act that does not relate to a reward or a punishment in and of itself.
كلُّ سُلامى من الناس عليه صدقة كلَّ يوم تطلع فيه الشمس، تَعدلُ بين اثنين صدقة، وتعين الرَّجل في دابَّته فتحمله عليها أو ترفع له عليها متاعَه صدقة، والكلمةُ الطيِّبة صدقة، وبكلِّ خطوة تَمشيها إلى الصلاة صدقة، وتُميط الأذى عن الطريق صدقة

Hani

Re: Islamic terms and their translations
« Reply #5 on: November 18, 2015, 09:29:59 PM »
Our concentration will be mainly on the linguistic meanings, since the purpose is to help with the accuracy of translation.
عَلامَةُ أَهْلِ الْبِدَعِ الْوَقِيعَةُ فِي أَهْلِ الأَثَرِ. وَعَلامَةُ الْجَهْمِيَّةِ أَنْ يُسَمُّوا أَهْلَ السُّنَّةِ مُشَبِّهَةً. وَعَلامَةُ الْقَدَرِيَّةِ أَنْ يُسَمُّوا أَهْلَ السُّنَّةِ مُجَبِّرَةً. وَعَلامَةُ الزَّنَادِقَةِ أَنْ يُسَمُّوا أَهْلَ الأَثَرِ حَشْوِيَّةً

Religion = simple & clear

Khaled

Re: Islamic terms and their translations
« Reply #6 on: November 18, 2015, 10:12:59 PM »
Our concentration will be mainly on the linguistic meanings, since the purpose is to help with the accuracy of translation.

The problem is a lot of the terms that you are using are used for their technical meaning rather than their linguistic; i.e. Shaadh, Munkar, Mutdarib... even Imaamah has a particular technical meaning when we are discussing Shi'a/Sunni polemics
كلُّ سُلامى من الناس عليه صدقة كلَّ يوم تطلع فيه الشمس، تَعدلُ بين اثنين صدقة، وتعين الرَّجل في دابَّته فتحمله عليها أو ترفع له عليها متاعَه صدقة، والكلمةُ الطيِّبة صدقة، وبكلِّ خطوة تَمشيها إلى الصلاة صدقة، وتُميط الأذى عن الطريق صدقة

Hani

Re: Islamic terms and their translations
« Reply #7 on: November 19, 2015, 03:07:29 AM »
Bro notice that I'm translating in a way that is geared towards Shia texts, iow I'm translating terms that we're often faced by when dealing with Shia and what they usually mean in that context.
عَلامَةُ أَهْلِ الْبِدَعِ الْوَقِيعَةُ فِي أَهْلِ الأَثَرِ. وَعَلامَةُ الْجَهْمِيَّةِ أَنْ يُسَمُّوا أَهْلَ السُّنَّةِ مُشَبِّهَةً. وَعَلامَةُ الْقَدَرِيَّةِ أَنْ يُسَمُّوا أَهْلَ السُّنَّةِ مُجَبِّرَةً. وَعَلامَةُ الزَّنَادِقَةِ أَنْ يُسَمُّوا أَهْلَ الأَثَرِ حَشْوِيَّةً

Religion = simple & clear

Sheikh

Re: Islamic terms and their translations
« Reply #8 on: November 19, 2015, 06:42:59 AM »
I don't think technical definitions are particularly useful for the purpose of translating. If someone needs to know that saheeh means authentic, they probably are not advanced enough to need to know or care to know the requirements of a hadeeth being classed as saheeh. For the majority of our audiences, it is sufficient to say that it means authentic. There is no major need to go into the details of why something is classed as authentic instead of hassan/good unless the question is asked.

Hani

Re: Islamic terms and their translations
« Reply #9 on: November 19, 2015, 03:44:43 PM »
Basically bros, I'm just writing my preferred translation for terms I usually come across in Sunni/Shia related material, hopefully with these translations the job will be easier for all of you, also it'll give english readers a better understanding.
عَلامَةُ أَهْلِ الْبِدَعِ الْوَقِيعَةُ فِي أَهْلِ الأَثَرِ. وَعَلامَةُ الْجَهْمِيَّةِ أَنْ يُسَمُّوا أَهْلَ السُّنَّةِ مُشَبِّهَةً. وَعَلامَةُ الْقَدَرِيَّةِ أَنْ يُسَمُّوا أَهْلَ السُّنَّةِ مُجَبِّرَةً. وَعَلامَةُ الزَّنَادِقَةِ أَنْ يُسَمُّوا أَهْلَ الأَثَرِ حَشْوِيَّةً

Religion = simple & clear

Hani

Re: Islamic terms and their translations
« Reply #10 on: January 23, 2017, 10:46:46 PM »
Salam guys,

New words added, Wakeel, Mawla, Qa'im etc... enjoy and give helpful feedback if needed, questions are welcome.
عَلامَةُ أَهْلِ الْبِدَعِ الْوَقِيعَةُ فِي أَهْلِ الأَثَرِ. وَعَلامَةُ الْجَهْمِيَّةِ أَنْ يُسَمُّوا أَهْلَ السُّنَّةِ مُشَبِّهَةً. وَعَلامَةُ الْقَدَرِيَّةِ أَنْ يُسَمُّوا أَهْلَ السُّنَّةِ مُجَبِّرَةً. وَعَلامَةُ الزَّنَادِقَةِ أَنْ يُسَمُّوا أَهْلَ الأَثَرِ حَشْوِيَّةً

Religion = simple & clear

 

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