TwelverShia.net Forum

Takfir of Akhbaris by Usoolis

0 Members and 1 Guest are viewing this topic.

Bolani Muslim

Takfir of Akhbaris by Usoolis
« on: November 11, 2015, 07:00:15 AM »
Muhammad Baqir ibn Muhammad Akmal al-Wahid Bihbahani, also Vahid Behbahani, or also Waheed Behbahani (1706–1791), was a Twelver Shia Islamic scholar. He is widely regarded as the founder or restorer of the Usuli school of Twelver Shi'a Islam and as playing a vital role in narrowing the field of orthodoxy in Twelver Shi'a Islam by expanding "the threat of takfir" against opposing scholars "into the central field of theology and jurisprudence".
According to scholar Moojan Momen, Behbahani played a very important role in Shii Islam by bringing in "the threat of takfir" — i.e. declaring the opponent an apostate, apostasy being a capital crime-
"into the central field of theology and jurisprudence where previously only ikhtilaf (agreement to hold differing opinions) had existed. Bihbahani was now to exclude by takfir all who disagreed with the principles of reasoning ('Aql) and ijtihad as sources of law. This paved the way for a great increase in the power and influence of the mujtahids in Qajar times and for the evolution of the concept of the marja at-taqlid."
The source is "An introduction to Shi’i Islam : the history and doctrines of Twelver Shi’ism," by Momen, Moojan (Link at bottom)

From http://www.akhbari.org/judgements.htm
"Mohammad Baqir Ibne Mohammad Akmal Bihbahani (1706/1118 to 1792/1207 AD) is considered to be the founder of Usooli school. Wahid Bihbahani brought the threat of takfir (condemn as an infide) into the central field of theology and jurisprudence, where previously only ikhtilaf (difference of opinion) (between Usooli and Akhbari) had existed.  (An Introduction to Shi’i Islam p.128). This attitude changed the Shia Usuli world radically (i.e., declaring the akhbari are infidels) which immediately divided the Usuli sect into two groups, mujtahid (who can have their own independent judgement) and Muqallid (who had to follow the rulings of mujtahid). One result of this division made Usooli (General Public) to fall sharply in the hierarchy of mujtahid.  This lead to the development of concept of Marja-e-Taqlid (reference point for amulation) and frequent reference to him as Naib al Imam (Deputy of the Imam) (Ref An Introduction of shii Islam p.204 & 140)."


Read pages 127-128
https://books.google.com/books?id=B0OL5Z8S-V0C&pg=PA128&lpg=PA128&dq=into+the+central+field+of+theology+and+jurisprudence+where+previously+only+ikhtilaf+(agreement+to+hold+differing+opinions)+had+existed.&source=bl&ots=v6Sz4KFvRV&sig=l868bDvtoOC2mk9Y3dW54hi2spg&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0CCMQ6AEwAWoVChMIis6P-7uHyQIVWOVjCh2WkAh3#v=onepage&q=into%20the%20central%20field%20of%20theology%20and%20jurisprudence%20where%20previously%20only%20ikhtilaf%20(agreement%20to%20hold%20differing%20opinions)%20had%20existed.&f=false

Bolani Muslim

Re: Takfir of Akhbaris by Usoolis
« Reply #1 on: November 11, 2015, 07:58:03 AM »
'The period from the middle of the Safavids to the time of Vahid Bihbahani was the period of the dominance of the Akhbari school in 12er Shiaism. The doctrines this school are described further in this book (pg 222). Although this controversy had begun  as a comparatively minor disagreement on a few points, it grew eventually into a bitter and vituperative dispute culminating in Bihbahani's declaration that Akhbaris are infidels (kuffar).
At first, the Akhbaris predominated in the shrine cities of Iraq, but it was Bihbahani who, at the end of the 18th century, reversed this and indeed, completely routed the Akhbaris of Karbala and Najaf. South Iraq, Bahrain, and a few cities in Iran would remain Akhbari strongholds for a few more decades but eventually the Usooli triumph was complete and only a handful of Shia ulema have remained Akhbari to the present day.
The results of Bihbahani's victory for 12er Shiaism were to be far reaching. By his takfir against the Akhbaris, Bihbahani continued in the work of Majlisi in narrowing the field of orthodoxy in 12er Shiaism. But where Majlisi had acted to exclude Sufism and philosophy which were at the periphery of the concerns of most of the ulema, Bihbahani brought the threat of takfir into the central field of theology and jurisprudence, where previously only ikhtilaaf had existed. Bihbahani was now to exclude by takfir all who disagreed with him with the principles of aql and ijtihad as sources of law. This paved way for great increase in the power and influence of the  mujtahids in the Qajar times and for the evolution of the concept of 'marja taqlid' (see pg 204). Bihbahani's importance was acknowledged by later generations of shia ulema who referred to him as 'Muassis' (founder of Usoolism), Ustad e Kull (Universal), Murawwij (Propagator) and the Mujaddid (Renewer) of the 13th Islamic century. His achievement would set the tone and direction of Shia development to the present day.

 

Related Topics

  Subject / Started by Replies Last post
6 Replies
3415 Views
Last post November 12, 2015, 02:59:10 AM
by Bolani Muslim
37 Replies
4581 Views
Last post November 27, 2020, 04:02:18 PM
by Soccer
12 Replies
4102 Views
Last post April 19, 2017, 03:29:46 PM
by Zlatan Ibrahimovic
6 Replies
1629 Views
Last post December 13, 2015, 10:41:39 AM
by omar111